On a hot day in Vienna in August 1925, Arthur Ruppin ascended the podium at the Fourteenth Zionist Congress and declared, “Palestine will be a state of two nations. Gentlemen, this is a fact.”

Earlier that year, Ruppin, Martin Buber, and other Zionist leaders had founded Brith Shalom (Covenant of Peace), an organization dedicated to Jewish-Arab coexistence in Palestine. Their platform: a binational state for the two peoples.

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